Book : Madinah Book ONE.
Teacher : Sameerah Al Harbi.
Class 4 Notes
The Third lesson
1)In this lesson we will see definite المعرفة and indefinite النكرة words.The word which is definite or indefinite is only for nouns and not for verbs and harf.
2)In this lesson we will learn how to change indefinite words to definite words.
3)Usually for every noun there will be المعرفة and النكرة word but for some nouns they are always المعرفة. For example: Proper nouns like مُحَمَّدٌ and فَاطِمَةُ.
4)There are two ways to change from النكرة and المعرفة.:
First way is to attach ”ال’ in the beginning which is said as ال التعريف: We attach ال in the beginning then remove the tanween in the end because ال and tanween cannot exist together. Does it makes sense to say ”The a house”? No! We say either ,”The House ” or we say,”A house”. Hence, both cannot exist together and also tanween is the sign of noun being النكرة and ”ال” is sign of noun being المعرفة.
Second way is called as الإِضَافَة: (We will learn this in next class in shaa Allaah).
5)The default harakah on nouns is dhammatayn (tanween).This harakah in end is changed when noun is put into sentence.Therefore, this means
if the noun is the object of the verb then the ending of noun is fathahtayn,
And if the noun is object of preposition then the ending of noun is Kasratayn.We will learn this in future in shaa Allaah.
6)Some nouns have unchangeable endings even putting them in sentence. Like هذا,مَن,ذلك,ما. Such are called in Arabic المَبنِيُّ.
7- In sentence القلم مكسور if we are talking about parts of speech we will say that , ”مكسور” is Adjective. But, if we are talking grammatical position meaning in grammar the sentence then we will say it is not Adjective but it is ”الخبر ”.
8-Hence, In القلم” القلم مكسور ” is مبتدأ مرفوع وعلامة رفعه الضمة. And , ” مكسور” is خبر مرفوع وعلامة رفعه الضمة.
9- The difference between saying, ” القلم مكسور”(The pen is broken) and ” القلم المكسورُ (The broken pen). In first one which is complete meaningful sentence the مكسور which is Adjective functions grammatically as ”Khabar” while in second which is not complete neither meaning full sentence, the المكسورُ grammatically function as Adjective.
10-How can we differentiate between an Adjective that grammatically function as an adjective (i.e in القلم المكسورُ) and an adjective that doesn’t grammatically function as adjective but Khabar (i.e in القلم مكسور)?
If we see in sentence which is not meaning full and incomplete القلم المكسورُ, here is القلم is المعرفة and المكسور is also المعرفة.Because,an Adjective grammatically that function as an Adjective must follow the thing which is being described. If the thing which is being described is معرفة then adjective should be معرفة and if the thing which is being described is نكرة then Adjective should be نكرة also. Also it both should be same in Gender, Number and إعراب also.
If we see in sentence which is meaningful and complete القلم مكسور, here the Adjective grammatically functions as خبر which is نكرة and القلم is always معرفة.
11- When we say meaningful sentence we mean to say that there is no additional information needed to make it meaningful as its already meaningful. And when we say not meaningful sentence then it means we need additional information to make it meaningful sentence.
Notes by Ommo ‘Abdillah Al Baakistaaniyyah.
From the Dars of Ustaadhah Sameerah Al Harbi.
NOTE : There had been some additions in my notes for better explanation for readers which teacher didn’t mentioned in class but which are coming from my previous teachers lecture who was Ommo Mujaahid Bint Lacina studied in Dammaj.