Book Name : Description of Prayer.
Author : Shaykh ibn Uthymeen Rahimahuallah.
Dars given by Abu Mu’aadh Taqweem
Conditions of the prayer
- The Arabic word , ”شروط الصلاة” (The conditions of the prayer )are those factors which will determine whether the prater is acceptable or not. If these factors are missing or not in correct place then the prayer is not acceptable. Therefore, the conditions of prayer are needed for a correctness of prayer because a condition linguistically means ”Sign” , in Arabic.
- As it is mentioned about the Signs of hour as الشراط الساعة
- The Islamic (legislative) meaning of Condition is , ” مَا يَلزَم مِن عَدَمِه العَدَم وَ لاَ يَلزَم مِن وُجُودِهِ وُجُود “
- A condition is that which necessitates by its absence, absence : This means one of the condition of the right prayer is right time. If the time of that particular prayer was not present but absent then that would dictate the absence of the matter or issue which is linked to it (i.e the prayer).If Fajr prayer is not prayed in Fajr time then Fajr prayer is absent.Hence, absence of condition dictates the absence of result.
- And it does not necessitate if it is present, that the outcome will also be necessarily be present means for example the Fajr time prayer is from 5 to 7 am. It does not means that all the way from 5 to 7 am you have to keep praying.
What are the conditions of the prayer?
1)دخول الوقت Entrance of the time : This is most important condition of prayer.
Shaykh ibn Uthymeen says, ”Many obligations are no longer applicable if the time period expires.”
Example : Hajj are in specific days , Ramadhan in specific month, Jumm’a prayer etc.
Shaykh ibn Uthymeen says, ” that’s why when we talk about the conditions of prayer we should phrase this first condition as Entrance of the time.And not just say the time because sometimes with the prayer somebody may pray outside the time.”
Example : Someone overslept accidentally and wake-up after Sunrise. They can pray Fajr.
EVIDENCE : Allaah ‘Azza wa jal says in Soorah Nisa verse103 , ” Verily, the prayer is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours.”
Therefore, the prayer is not acceptable if you do it before the time. Even if the person did that forgetfully or not knowing ruling still prayer is not acceptable.
What are the times of prayers?
1)Fajr time : Their are two types of dawn :
- True dawn. الفجر الصادق
- False dawn الفجر الكاذب
At night its dark, pitch black then in the morning when the light FIRST appears. The scholars have mentioned in the Fiqh books in accordance to narrations that when the light first appears it appears in the vertical manner going up in the sky. In some narrations it says its like whiteness of the tail of the fox.When that light appears it is not time for prayer hence we say it is False Fajr. Because, after some time it disappears and becomes dark like pitch black.This is why it is said when the first Adhaan is given that is not the time when you have to stop eating or start praying.
Where as, the True dawn is after False dawn. So the fuqahah mentions when the light appears for second time it will appear not upwards in the sky but flat across the horizon.This is the time for Fajr. And so one can pray and stop eating.
Ibn ‘Abbaas (radiallaahu ‘anhumma) said that the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: There are two Fajrs (dawns). As for the first, it does not prevent eating (for the fasting person) nor does it permit prayer (the Fajr prayer). As for the other, it prohibits eating (for the fasting person) and allows the prayer. [Ibn Khuzaimah and Haakim]
Shaikh al-‘Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) said in his explanation to Bulugh al-Maram (the seventh tape):
“The ‘ulama said there are two fajrs. One true and one lying, and there are three differences between them.The first difference (is) in how they look. So, the true fajr extends from north to south, and the lying fajr it extends from east to west – oblong like the tail of the wolf.
The second difference (is) that the true fajr doesn’t have darkness between it and the horizon, rather, its light is connected with the horizon. As for the lying fajr, there is darkness between it and the horizon, meaning the light does not extend until the end of the horizon.
The third difference (is) the lying fajr, its oblong light becomes dark and its light goes away. As for the true fajr, its light persists and becomes stronger until the sun rises. These are the three differences between the true fajr and the lying fajr.”
Shaykh ibn uthymeen says that the time starts from True dawn till when the sun starts to rise.The horizon will be at darkness all of the night then from the Eastern side in the morning when the sun comes close its about to rise, sun light will appear. So, if you see then spread out across north to south all across the horizon that is then time you can pray the fajr.The time period typically as in example from when that true dawn occurs up until when the sun actually begins to rise up over the horizon is approximately someway in the regional when the hour and 15 mins or hour and 30 mins roughly about that time.
2)Dhuhr time : In the morning the sun rises from the east. Therefore, if you were to put an object outside the shadow would be in west direction. The Sun rises and rises and rises until it is right in the peak of the Sky.(Peak is the highest point middle of the Sky) At that moment the shadow of the object would be directly underneath it, for there is nothing around the sides of it.Then after that when the sun moves across from the middle point of the day the shadow will now start to appear on the eastern side of the object because now the sun has dropped into the western side. As soon as that occurs that is the time of the Dhuhr beginning. That is not the Dhuhr time when the Sun is on its peak but this is actually forbidden time but the dhuhr time starts when it moves down and begins to head to the western side. The moment it does that the shadow will appear on the eastern side. That is the Dhuhr time. It continues till the shadow is equal to that object. Here, Dhuhr prayer time ends.
Shaykh ibn Uthymeen gives example : Make a line and when shadow increases and increases until the level of that object is equal to the object. But now it goes beyond that this means that the Dhuhr time is ended and Asr time has began.
3)’Asr time : There are two opinions of the Scholars :
- Asr time continues till the Sunsets.
- The Time of Asr Ends when the Sun becomes like orange hazel color. This is prior to sunset. And some scholars said that if there is necessity due to valid reason to pray Asr then it can be prayed between the time when Sun is in orange hazel color till the Sunsets.But, it cannot be prayed due to laziness and negligence.
From after when Dhuhr time ends when the Shadow of object is equal to it, Asr begins up until the Sun becomes orange hazel color. And this could occur in different times and not always same time. It can be sometimes an hour or half hour etc before the actual Sunset depending on seasons.
4)Maghrib prayer :
The Maghrib prayer begins once the sunsets and after the sunsets you still see the redness on sky and its not dark pitch black still. There will be still light. This light slowly starts to disappear and when it completely disappears and becomes pitch black then here the maghrib time ends. This could take an hour or hour and half. Prophet Sal Allaaho Alyhe sasalam said, ” the time of the maghrib prayer is as long as that redness in the sky has not disappeared قال عليه الصلاة والسلام : ” وَوَقْتُ صَلَاةِ الْمَغْرِبِ مَا لَمْ يَغِبْ الشَّفَقُ
Shaykh ibn Uthymeen says that type of thing you cannot tell when you are inside city because of lights and you can tell if you go out somewhere. Once that redness completely goes the maghrib time has ended and Isha time started. Ishaa time continues .
5)’Ishaa prayer :
There are two opinions: Some scholars say it continues till half of night and some say it continues till two third of night.
Shaykh ibn uthymeen mentions that from the disappearance of the redness on the Sky the Isha begins up until half of the night. How do you determine the half of the night? From the time of Maghrib sunset up until the time of Fajr whatever the hours are , take its half. For example : If the Sun goes down at 6 pm and the night is total 10 hours long.Fajr is 4 am. Then you can pray Isha till 11 pm.Some scholars say that beyond that half of the night begins the time of necessity in which Isha can be prayed having valid reason.
Every prayer have shorter time.
The Question is when a person should pray? Is it as soon as the Time enters or little later within those times?
What is the Sunnah (better)?
Generally speaking All the prayers have to be prayed in the beginning time except the Ishaa prayer. Ishaa prayer it is better to delay to the later times if there is no burden upon people.
Evidence is narration One night the Prophet delayed the Isha’ prayer whereupon ‘Umar went to him and said, “The prayer, O Allah’s Apostle! The women and children had slept.” The Prophet came out with water dropping from his head, and said, “Were I not afraid that it would be hard for my followers (or for the people), I would order them to pray Isha prayer at this time.”
It is not obligatory to delay the Ishaa prayer but it is better to do without any difficulty.
Shaykh ibn Uthymeen says now though men are required to pray in congregation. The people now occur prayer at the beginning time of Ishaa prayer to remove difficulty. In that case, it is better to pray with congregation. Therefore, if a group of people are out travelling somewhere they will pray themselves in congregation. It is better for them to delay. If someone ended up missing the congregation. Now, afterwards he comes to the masjid. He can delay now if he have ability.
What should the women do when it comes to Ishaa prayer?
A: Recommendation is that they should pray late if it is not difficulty upon them.
All the prayers apart from Ishaa are prayed at beginning times and this is Sunnah. We see now the congregation prayer starts not in the begining of the time of prayer when it enters rather half hour late or 15 mins etc. In this case, it is upon the one to pray with congregation because praying at the beginning times is Sunnah and praying with congregation is obligatory.
There is one exception for Dhuhr prayer to not pray at first time and it can be delayed to end time before ‘Asr when it is extremely hot. As Narrated by Abu Huraira and ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar: Allah’s Messenger Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam said, “If it is very hot, then pray the Zuhr prayer when it becomes (a bit) cooler, as the severity of the heat is from the raging of the Hell-fire.” (Saheeh Bukhaaree 510 -Times of the prayer).
There is one issue that scholars mention regarding this point above about Delaying Dhuhr prayer when it is extremely hot is Sunnah (preferable) or it is a Rukhsah meaning if it hot then it is still better to pray in the beginning time but its allowed to pray later.The scholars have differed on this issue.
- Shaykh ibn Uthymeen (Rahimahuallah) says, ” Some of them says if it is hot you should delay and it is SUNNAH and pray later on. Then in any situation even if you say its extremely hot but we have no problem we can pray even that you should pray later.Some of the scholars say, ”Its a Rukhsah only (i.e a permission)” meaning not Sunnah but permission you are given. So in that case, it is for the NEED of/permission of/ because of the severity or difficulty upon people not that it is recommended to pray dhuhr later but because of heat it is allowed to pray later.
The Shaykh ibn uthymeen said, ”Nowadays people follow the opinion of Rukhsah. That you can delay it but we see people don’t delay it’.If however another opinion is to be taken then everybody would be delaying it. But, nowadays people say it is easier for them to pray at beginning times and not delay later because if we were to delay dhuhr prayer closer to Asr prayer time and because many students and people take short nap after Dhuhr prayer time then if they slept without praying then it will be hard waking up and pray closer to Asr prayer time starts. So, rather for them it is easy to pray at beginning time.”
However, in the case when you delay the prayer due to heat to half hour or hour before Asr time then when is Adhaan suppose to be done?
Shaykh ibn Uthymeen says, ‘‘The adhaan is to be then delayed because it is mentioned in the hadeeth of Prophet Sal Allaaho Alyhe wasalam in Saheeh Bukhaaree 514 ”Narrated Abu Dhar Al-Ghifar: We were with the Prophet on a journey and the Mu’adhdhin (call maker for the prayer) wanted to pronounce the Adhan (call) for the Zuhr prayer. The Prophet said, ‘Let it become cooler.” He again (after a while) wanted to pronounce the Adhan but the Prophet said to him, “Let it become cooler till we see the shadows of hillocks.” The Prophet added, “The severity of heat is from the raging of the Hell-fire, and in very hot weather pray (Zuhr) when it becomes cooler.” (Times of Prayer-Saheeh Bukhaaree)”
This narration clears that the delaying of Dhuhr due to heat is done being very closer to the start of Asr prayer time.
Notes by Ommo Abdillah Al Baakistaaniyah.
NOTE: Pictures have been added by Omm Abdillah and two of the sayings of Scholars added from Maktabah tul Uthymeen blog regarding True Fajr and False Fajr. CLICK HERE TO VISIT BLOG
Reference audio lesson 3 : https://soundcloud.com/learnaboutislam