Book : Madinah Book ONE.
Teacher : Sameerah Al Harbi.
Class 6 Notes
Grammar in Lesson 4 taken from Handout
- How to know that the word is مرفوع is by looking at the ending of word, if its Dhammah then it is مرفوع.
- The word, ” البَيتُ ” is مرفوع (Nominative case). After mentioning the grammatical case of word it is OPTIONAL for you to mention the sign of that word being in that case. So we say, اسم مرفوع وعلامة رفعه الضمة
- We have three grammatical cases. We will only take two types for now which are : 1)مرفوع (Nominative case). 2)مجرور (Genitive case).
- We can know that the word is , ”مجرور ” by looking at the sign in end of word which will be Kasrah. And also the word will have before it حرف جر (i.e preposition).
- In في البيتِ it is , ”اسم مجرور وعلامة جره الكسرة ”.Why this word is in genitive case ? Because, this word , ” البيت ” is preceded by , ” في ” which is , ”حرف جر”.
- In this lesson part 1 you learnt two NEW PREPOSITIONS which are : فيِ and على. They are called حروف جر.Because they effect the word that comes after it, making it مجرور .
- في can mean , ”In” or ”At”.
- In ” على ” in end it is not Yaa but it is الف مقصورة Alif un-Maqsoorah.
Example : في بيتك in this we pronounce the Yaa saying, ”Fee baytika”
فيْ الْبيت in this the Hamzah tul Wasl is dropped in speech as it is coming between the words. And then comes two saakin in the row. In Arabic, we cannot have two sukoon in row. And so in this case we solve the problem by changing the first sukoon. It depends on the word, sometimes we change sukoon to fathah, sometimes to dhammah, sometimes to kasrah and sometimes we drop it. In this case, we drop it. Therefore, this is how we will pronounce it فِلبَيت ”Filbayti” This is only in Pronunciation not in writing.
In على مكتب الدرس we will pronounce alif . ‘Ala Maktabi”
على المكتب in this there is Hamzah tul Wasl in between which drops in pronunciation. Then we again have two saakin in row which is Laam and Alif Maqsoorah. To solve the problem, we drop the Alif saakinah and then say ‘Alal Maktab .
In منْ فرنسا we see that Faransaa donot start will sukoon so we donot have to change anything in , ”Min” there is no problem hence it stays same, ”Min Faransaa” but in مِنَ البَيت we see ,”Min ” have fathah and so it is ,”Mina”.This is because if the noun comes which is ال التعريف after , ”من ” then the hamzah tul wasl drops and then we are left with two saakin in a row which is laam saakin of , ”البيت ” and noon saakin of , ”من ”. To solve this problem we ALWAYS CHANGE THE SUKOON TO FATHAH IN MIN . Hence, it is ”مِنَ البيت”.
In إلى we follow same steps to solve the problem which we used for, ”على ” because both end with Alif maqsoorah. Hence, in both Alif maqsoorah which is saakin is dropped in pronunciation.
- Total we learn 4 preposition in this chapter: في , على , من , إلى. The endings of prepositions donot change except if there are two saakin in a row.
Notes by Ommo ‘Abdillah Al Baakistaaniyyah.
From the Dars of Ustaadhah Sameerah Al Harbi.