Book Name : Description of Prayer.
Author : Shaykh ibn Uthymeen Rahimahuallah.
Dars given by Abu Mu’aadh Taqweem
We are still on topic , ”Entry times of the prayer”
Issue about Fajr prayer : We mentioned the time from True dawn until Sun rise. There is one Hadeeth which say
أسفروا بالفجر فإنه أعظم للأجر’ ”Pray your Fajr when the light becomes apparent because that is greater in Reward”
meaning Pray at the End time. That what this hadeeth seems to indicates.Hence, it shows it is preferred to pray Fajr later when it starts to get lighter because the closer you get to sunrise, the lighter it gets. However, we have already said that the Narrations as a whole indicate that prayers apart from ‘Eshaa should be at beginning times. Also, some narrations mentions that they would go into the masjid to pray Fajr prayer at the time of Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam and such was the darkness that they could barely recognize the person next to them. This indicates that it was prayed at beginning time.
So, How can we understand this particular narration about praying at later time?
Shaykh Ibne ‘Uthymeen Rahimahuallah says, ”If this narration is authentic, then one of the understandings of this narration is that it means pray when some light starts to become apparent(meaning don’t stop praying when it is completely dark yet) and so allow some light to appear a little bit so that you don’t accidentally end up praying a little too early before the actual time. (note : this don’t means allow much light to appear which is just before sunrise).’‘
Another understanding of narration Shaykh Fawzaan mentioned with the Fajr prayer it is mentioned in the narrations ”that the Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam used to pray between 60 and 100 ayahs in the Fajr prayer. ”
So, if you are going to do same then it is going to be reasonably long.
So, then the Shaykh ibn Uthymeen said, ”the combination can still be made between the narrations that indicate they used to go in the Masjid in the morning and there was so dark that they could barely see another person.And between this narration saying, ”praying when the light appears”.
Shaykh ibn Uthymeen says that the combination is that , ”They used to go early at the beginning time but because the prayer would be so long, by the time they finishing the prayer. Now if you look outside it has become quite light.Because of the length of the Fajr prayer, when they began and when they ended.”
”All of the narrators who narrated (described) the prayer of the Prophet Sal Allaho ‘Alyhe wasalam they all mentioned he used to pray Fajr in darkness (i.e early time in Fajr) and then by the time they used to finish that’s the time when the light would appear and they could recognize each other.This indicates that there is no contradictions between these narrations. ”
Shaykh tells conclusion, ” With the Fajr prayer it is Sunnah (recommended) is that you pray Early in the beginning time but make sure that the True Fajr has appeared and then pray at early time and with the combination of the evidences it would indicate that the Fajr prayer was quite lengthy.’
Shaykh says, ”These times that Allaah Azza wa jal Has prescribed the prayer within , 4 of those times are connected and one of them is completely separate and disconnected.”
- The four times that are connected are Dhuhr to Asr to Maghrib to ‘Eesha.
- And the one time which is completely separate is Fajr.
So, Fajr is separate from ‘Eesha and separate from Dhuhr. Because after the ‘Eesha prayer up until the Fajr prayer there is the last half of the night which is avoided in terms of obligatory prayer. After the Fajr prayer up until the DHuhr, first half of the day is empty from the obligatory prayer so either side it has a space where there is no obligatory time of the prayer. After the middle of the night , there is no prescribed time for obligatory prayers instead what is prescribed is the nawaafil. Just like the Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam said,
روى البخاري (1131) ومسلم (1159) عن عَبْد اللَّهِ بْن عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ رضى الله عنهما أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ لَهُ : ( أَحَبُّ الصَّلاَةِ إِلَى اللَّهِ صَلاَةُ دَاوُدَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ ، وَأَحَبُّ الصِّيَامِ إِلَى اللَّهِ صِيَامُ دَاوُدَ ، وَكَانَ يَنَامُ نِصْفَ اللَّيْلِ وَيَقُومُ ثُلُثَهُ وَيَنَامُ سُدُسَهُ
The most beloved prayer to Allaah is the prayer of Dawuud ‘Alyhe salam. He used to sleep for half of the night and اhe used to pray third of the night and he used to sleep again sixth of the night. ”
Important point : Shaykh says, ”Pay attention to this point!(i.e point about ‘Eesha and night prayer)
- The majority of the Fuqaha take the opinion, that ‘Eesha can actually be prayed all the way till Fajr. But, this opinion is weak and this is not in Sunnah and neither there is Ayah in the Qur’aan.
- The correct opinion from the Statements of the scholars is that after Half of the night is not the time for ‘Eesha. Eesha is up to the half of the night. Evidence is from the Qur’aan and Sunnah. As for the Qur’aan in Soorah 17:78.أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ
”Perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) from mid-day till the darkness of the night (i.e. the Zuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib, and ‘Isha’ prayers), …”
غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ the most darkest part of night and the darkest part of night is the middle day of the night.The middle of night is the point when the sun is the most distant from you.Therefore, the middle of the night will be the darkest part of night.” Hence, the time when ‘Eesha prayer ends , is middle of the night.
Another point here to prove that Eesha prayer is middle of the night and not all way till Fajr. In this verse, أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ It mentions the prayers Dhuhur, Asr , Maghrib, Ishaa. Then it mentions specifically about fajr prayer, ” وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ﴾and recite the Qur’an in the early dawn (i.e. the morning prayer). ”
Why it mentioned other prayers together and mentioned after that specifically Fajr prayer?
Because, all 4 times of those prayers are connected and Fajr prayer time is separate.
As from Sunnah is the Hadeeth
وأما في سنة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ففي صحيح مسلم عن عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنهما أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: “وقت الظهر إذا زالت الشمس وكان ظل الرجل كطوله ما لن يحضر وقت العصر، ووقت العصر ما لم تصفر الشمس، ووقت صلاة المغرب ما لم يغيب الشفق، ووقت العشاء إلى نصف الليل الأوسط، ووقت صلاة الصبح من طلوع الفجر ما لم تطلع الشمس”، وفي رواية: “وقت العشاء إلى نصف الليل” ولم يقيده بالأوسط.
The time for Dhuhr is when the sun goes pass the peak until the shadow of a man is same as him as long as the Asr time does not come. And the time for Asr is as long as the Sun does not become like the yellow hazey color. And the time for the maghrib prayer is as long as the redness leftover after sunset in the horizon has not disappeared. And then the time of Eesha after that up until the middle of the night and then the time for the Fajr prayer is from the True Dawn as long as the Sun does not rise anywhere in thier, and if the sun does rise then stop the prayer because then the sun rises between the two horns of the Shaytaan”
Shaykh says, ”If it is said that there is a gap also between ‘Asr And Maghrib then there is hadeeth.
حديث أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال:.. ومن أدرك ركعة من العصر قبل أن تغرب الشمس فقد أدرك العصر” (متفق عليه).
”Whomsoever catches one Rakah of the ‘Asr before the sunsets then he has caught the ‘Asr prayer”, that time after the yellowness of the sun to sunset is technically part of the ‘Asr time . So, as long as you pray just one rakah before sunset that means you started praying ‘Asr prayer in its time and you continue that and finish in its time. But this is the time of necessity of Asr prayer.
Shaykh says,” therefore Asr has two times:
- The preferable chosen correct time which is when the shadow is equal up until the yellowness of the sun.
- And a time of necessity which is from the yellowness until the sunset.
Shaykh says,” the benefit of having these prescribed times for the prayer is because it links into other rulings for a person. If a person was capable or he fulfilled the conditions of being someone who has to pray within that time period then its obligatory upon him to pray but if the conditions of being able to pray were not present within a person during that time frame then he does not have to pray.Example : A person becomes ill and falls unconscious from this severe illness and this happens before the sun goes pass the peak of the day (ie. before Dhuhr time) and he finally comes back to counsiousness until after the sun has gone down. So, now that person does not has to pray DHuhr and Asr because he lost his consciousnesses from before Dhuhr time has started and regained himself after the sunset. So, he missed completely the time of Dhuhr till Asr.
Another example : If a women becomes purified from the mensuration cycle after sunset, then for that day now she does not has to pray Fajr, Dhuhr and Asr.
Another example :A women began that day mensuration cycle before the Dhuhr time. So, when she become pures she donot pray that prayer because she started before the Dhuhr time.
What if the women got her menses after the Dhuhr time started but she didn’t prayed at early time and got menses in between the dhuhr time. ?
- According to one opinion of scholars she has to makeup because they could have prayed after the time began.
- Another opinion says she does not has to makeup prayer. Because it was not obligatory for her to have to pray in that first hour of Dhuhr, she can pray at second hour but she couldn’t because of period.
Wisdom of the prayers being put in these particular times:
1)Shaykh says, : ”Sometimes you find between prayer to prayer there is a big gap and sometimes between certain other times of prayers there is only the short gap.Between Fajr and Dhuhr is a big gap. Between Eesha and Fajr is a big gap. From Dhuhr to Asr is medium size gap and between Maghrib and Ishaa is short gap.Allaho ‘Alam perhaps there is something wisdom behind it. These times has been linked to the movement of the seasons.
- Wisdom of Fajr :After the darkness of the night appears the light of the day.And this is one of the greatest signs of Allah ‘Azza wa jal.” how the night and the day alternate among-st themselves perfectly.Perhaps one of the wisdom behind that is the creation to establish prayer and realize upon them this great affair of the signs of Allaah.A big gap has been replaced between the Fajr and Dhuhr Because, that is the time then that the people would go out seeking their sustenance.
Sleeping after Fajr is not praise worthy.
- Wisdom of Dhuhr : Shaykh says, ” Dhuhr has been made just as the sun moves from the eastern side to the western side. This is one of the greatest signs of Allaah ‘Azza wajal in creation how initially the sun is rising from one side and your shadow is on that side then without even noticing , the shadow moves to the other side and the sun has moved from the eastern side to the western side. So, that movement from one side to the another side of shadow is the great sign of Allaah.So, initially the shadown is getting smaller and smaller (in the morning the shadow will be long then when the sun rise the shadow gets smaller and smaller until its gone and then it appears again and becomes bigger and bigger. All of this is from the signs of Allaah and the way He made this creation. (Who in the creation would be able to make the light and the shadow to appear that way? So, perhaps the wisdom again behind this time, is for the people to recognize this great creation of Allaah Azza wa jal.
- Wisdom of Asr : Shaykh says, Allaho ‘Alam
- Wisdom of Maghrib : It is a great scenic view.If you were in the plane at that time and you see the sun going down above the cloud you see the light disappears.It is a great sight so this is again great time of the day. Great signs of Allaah ‘Azza wa jal. Shaykh says, ”One time i took a plane, just a few minutes before maghrib time was departure. So, it departed and the sun disappeared and we could saw all that it was occuring. And we see when you are in the plane 30,000 feet you can still see the sun whereas in the ground it will now leave.But from the plane when i looked to the ground it was darkness on it. So, look at this amazing time.”
- Wisdom of ‘Eesha : There is another physical change which you witness. Redness of the skys, the leftover sun rays began to dwindle and disappear and the darkness appears. So, thats another great change that you see in the sky occuring before your eyes. This is great signs of Allaah ‘Azza wa jal to ponder upon.
Shaykh says, ”Then it is also from the blessings of Allaah ‘Azza wa jal that these prayers are spread over these times and they are not placed into one time. So, all of these prayers have different times of the day.
Benefits of doing so are :
- That a person doesn’t become a fatigue.
- If all of the prayers was just in one time then that would actually be detrimental to a person (meaning bad for him). Because, then for the rest of the day there is obedience of prayer for that person in terms of the obligatory prayers . This is why it is mentioned regarding the women in monthly cycle that they are not allowed to pray. And the consequence of being not allowed to pray can cause the Eeman to decrease.
Notes by Ommo Abdillah Al Baakistaaniyah.
Reference audio lesson 4 : https://soundcloud.com/learnaboutislam