Book Name : Description of Prayer.
Author : Shaykh ibn Uthymeen Rahimahuallah.
Dars given by Abu Mu’aadh Taqweem
Shaykh Ibn Uthymeen says regarding the whole topic about times,
”Therefore, we understand that it is not permissible to pray any of the prayers before the time enters for that particular prayer. Even, if somebody ended up praying the prayer before the time begins, accidentally due to forgetfulness or ignorance of the time.The prayer is not correct and has to repeat it. This is like somebody who slaughters on ‘Eed day before the ‘Eed prayer then that slaughtering is not correct. And that’s why Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam commanded the ones who had already slaughtered before ‘Eed prayer, to go and repeat another slaughtering because the time of slaughtering is after the ‘Eed prayer. Similarly here, every prayer has a particular time.”
More examples to elaborate on it further :
EXAMPLE 1 : Shaykh ibn ‘Uthymeen says, ”If somebody for example, prayed the Maghreb prayer because he thought the sunset had occurred due to lots of cloud cover. Afterwards, when it cleared up a little bit and there is a sun. He realizes that sun actually didn’t set yet. In this case, the prayer he prayed is not correct.He will have to wait for entrance of Maghreb prayer time and then pray again. However, that first prayer that he prayed cannot be considered as obligatory Maghreb prayer but it can be still considered and rewarded as supererogatory prayer as nafil. Because, this individual particularly when he prayed he made two intentions : 1)his intention generally to pray. 2)the fard maghrib prayer. So, He had intended he is going to pray then on top of that he had intended that it is going to be my obligatory Maghreb prayer. Moments later he realized,it couldn’t have been its obligatory Maghreb because the sun is still there and he has to repeat that. So, that part of intention of his is nullified. The other general part of his intention that he is going to pray the prayer is still there.So, that prayer is still counted as Prayer but it is counted as supererogatory prayer.That is why some scholars says, ”The prayer becomes supererogatory when the obligatory is not applicable.”
EXAMPLE 2 : Shaykh says, ”If somebody purposely prayed a prayer before the time entered that individual again off-course his prayer is not valid. But, on top of that this person will be sinful for doing that.”
EXAMPLE 3 : ”If somebody purposely delays the prayer beyond the end time and then prays it after the time is finished.Like Some people, specially in the winter time will say to themselves the fajr is 7 am. My work start at 9 am. Its more suitable for me to put alarm at quarter past 8 so that ill wake up at this time and pray fajr and go to work. Even though by then the Fajr prayer has gone.(RULING)In that case, his prayer will not be accepted even if he then prayed it thousand times.Proof for this is verse in Soorah An-Nisa 103, ”Verily, the prayer is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours.”
If this person delays it on purpose, beyond the time,he is a wrongdoer, a transgressor.Just like in Quraan in Soorah Baqarah verse 229, ”These are the limits ordained by Allah, so do not transgress them. And whoever transgresses the limits ordained by Allah, then such are the Zalimun (wrong-doers, etc.).”
The one who does so his prayer is not accepted because his action is not good or righteous. As in Hadeeth,
عَنْ أَبِيْ هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللهُ تَعَالَى عَنْهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ : (إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى طَيِّبٌ لاَ يَقْبَلُ إِلاَّ طَيِّبَاً  رواه مسلم.
”Allaah is pure and does not accept except something which is pure”
If a person delays it further and prays it after the time then that person has not performed the prayer upon the manner which the command of Allaah to His messenger came.
As in Hadeeth,
عَنْ أُمِّ المُؤمِنِينَ أُمِّ عَبْدِ اللهِ عَائِشَةَ – رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهَا – قَالَتْ: قَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ : (مَنْ أَحْدَثَ فِيْ أَمْرِنَا هَذَا مَا لَيْسَ مِنْهُ فَهُوَ رَدٌّ)  رواه البخاري
” whomsoever does an action which is not from our actions, it will be rejected from him”.
IF somebody already did that so what should be advise to such individual?
Shaykh says, ”This person needs to repent to Allaah and it is not upon him to repeat the prayer”.
Shaykh says, ”The other situation is what if somebody delays the prayer beyond the time accidentally due to forgetfulness or sleeping,or out of ignorance like we mentioned before about the cloud cover. Somebody goes to sleep and put the Alarm next to their head but such was the deepness of the sleep on this occasion that even though the alarm is ringing on its time but he does not actually end up waking up until after sunrise.He then prays the prayer after sunrise and his prayer is correct. Because there is evidence from the statements and actions of the Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam.
Hadeeth in Bukhaaree and Muslim, where the Prophet Sal Allaaho Alyhe wasalam stated,
عن أنس عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: «إِذَا رَقَدَ أَحَدُكُمْ عَنِ الصَّلاَةِ أَوْ غَفَلَ عَنْهَا فَلْيُصَلِّهَا إِذَا ذَكَرَهَا..”
‘‘if one of you oversleep the prayer or you are negligent of it (forgetfulness),as soon as you wake up then it is upon you to pray that prayer ”
Proof from the action of Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam.: Hadeeth of Abo Hurairah Radi Allaaho ‘Anhu.
عن أبي هريرة : أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حين قفل من غزوة خيبر فسار ليلة حتى إذا أدركنا الكرى عرس وقال لبلال اكلأ لنا الليل قال فغلبت بلالا عيناه وهو مستند إلى راحلته فلم يستيقظ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا بلال ولا أحد من أصحابه حتى إذا ضربتهم الشمس فكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أولهم استيقاظا ففزع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال يا بلال فقال أخذ بنفسي الذي أخذ بنفسك بأبي أنت وأمي يا رسول الله فاقتادوا رواحلهم شيئا ثم توضأ النبي صلى .الله عليه وسلم وأمر بلالا فأقام لهم الصلاة وصلى بهم الصبح
In this narration it mentions how Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam was on the journey from the battle of Khaybar. And they had been travelling throughout from a lengthy time. Even during the night. Then when eventually they stopped, the Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam placed Bilaal Radi Allaaho Anhu in responsiblity to wake them for Fajr prayer. The Prophet Sal Allaaho Alyhe wasalam and other companions went to sleep. Bilaal Radi Allaaho ‘Anhu prayed and remained awake. And then close to the time of Fajr he also was overcome by sleep. So, they were all asleep to the extent that the Sunrose. And they only woke up due to heat coming down on thier faces. And the Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam was the first to wakeup And when he wakeup its mentioned that they made wudu and he commanded the bilal radi Allaaho Anhu to establish the Iqaamat for prayer and then Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam prayed with them.
Some of the examples that Shaykh gives , ”A person does not have any water to make wudu. He knows he can get water but by the time he reaches to get water the prayer time will be finished. So, he has to make tayammum and pray. ”
Remember : Tayammum is only substitute for water as opinion of some of the scholars.
Another situation Shaykh says, ”A person has no water available. So, he makes tayammum because he don’t expects to find water. He prays. But, when he passes by he comes across a small lake and the time for the prayer has not gone yet. ”
خَرَجَ رَجُلَانِ فِي سَفَرٍ, فَحَضَرَتْ اَلصَّلَاةَ -وَلَيْسَ مَعَهُمَا مَاءٌ- فَتَيَمَّمَا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا, فَصَلَّيَا, ثُمَّ وَجَدَا اَلْمَاءَ فِي اَلْوَقْتِ. فَأَعَادَ أَحَدُهُمَا اَلصَّلَاةَ وَالْوُضُوءَ, وَلَمْ يُعِدِ اَلْآخَرُ, ثُمَّ أَتَيَا رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ فَذَكَرَا ذَلِكَ لَهُ, فَقَالَ لِلَّذِي لَمْ يُعِدْ: “أَصَبْتَ اَلسُّنَّةَ وَأَجْزَأَتْكَ صَلَاتُكَ” وَقَالَ لِلْآخَرِ: “لَكَ اَلْأَجْرُ مَرَّتَيْنِ” } رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ, ]و] النَّسَائِيّ ُ
Hadeeth about two men were out on a journey and the time of the prayer came. And on their journey in the location they were, was no water.So, they made tayammum and then they prayed. Then, soon afterwards they came across some water and the time for the prayer had not gone yet. So, one of them he used the water, made wudu and repeated the prayer. The other one didn’t and left his prayer upon the tayammum that he did. Then the two of them came to Prophet and mentioned to him what happened. Then, the Prophet Sal Allaaho Alyhe wasalam said to the one who didn’t repeated, ” You have done the Sunnah”. Then, the Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam said to the one who repeated the prayer, ”For you is the reward twice”.
This indicates for us that if a person is in that situation that you do Tayammum and then you soon afterwards find water. That you don’t have to repeat the prayer again.
Tayammum is allowed in 2 cases:
- 1)No water available.
- 2)Water maybe available but you are in a situation where you are unable to use it. Either it maybe disability that you cannot move. Or illness that you have a skin disease that doctor recommend not to use water.
Here, we conclude with first condition of prayer : Entry of time.
Second condition is ; Purification from the Minor and the Major Hadath.
- Hadath being that affair which prevents you from praying.
- Minor Hadath : having broken wind, answering the call of nature, urine. This requires Wudu.
- Major Hadath : Sexual intercourse. This requires full Ghusl.
- Evidence for purification is a condition for the prayer to be accepted :
Hadeeth of Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam,
عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال :” لاَ تُقْبَلُ صَلاَةٌ بِغَيْرِ طُهُورٍ)
”that the prayer will not be accepted without purification” (Saheeh Muslim)”.
- Here, the Prayer is Indefinite which means Any prayer whether it is obligatory prayer, nafil prayer or janazah prayer.
The Third condition : You must be free from any impurification.
This is on 3 things :
- 1)Their must be no impurity upon your clothing that you are praying in,
Evidence : Hadeeth in Al Bukhaaree and Muslim, that on one occasion a small child was brought to Prophet Sal Allaaho Alyhe wasalam and this child urinated on the clothing of Prophet Sal Allaho ‘Alyhe wasalam. So, the Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe saalam call for some water to be brought and he purified that urine with the water.
Another evidence : In this Hadeeth it is mentioned that on one occasion Prophet Sal Allaaho Alyhe wasalam praying, leading the prayer in congregation. During the prayer, Prophet Sal Allaaho Alyhe wasalam removed the shoes and put them on the left of himself and carried on. Behind him the congregation when the companions saw this they also removed their shoes thinking the revelation has come that you cannot pray in shoes. After the Prayer the Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam said to them, ”What caused you all to take your shoes off”?They said, ‘We saw you take your shows off, so we took off”. Then Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam said, ”Jibraeel ‘Alyhe salaam came to me and informed me that there is some impurity in my shoes”. In the End of the Hadeeth Prophet Sal Allaaho Alyhe wasalam said, ”When you come to the masjid look at your shoes, if you find some impurity then clean them, then you can pray in them”.
- 2)Your actual body must be free from any impurity.
As for body, it is mentioned in the previous narrations that you must be upon purity which indicate that whole body should be clean, with no impurity.
- 3)On the actual place you are praying on.
Hadeeth of Anas Bin Maalik Radi Allaaho Anhu who said:While we were in the masjid with the Messenger of Allaah, a Bedouin came; he then urinated in the masjid. The Companions of the Messenger of Allaah Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam said, “Mah Mah (An expression used to severly scold someone, to indicate the graveness of a matter).”The Messenger of Allaah Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam said, “Do not put a halt to his urinating, but instead leave him.”They left him alone until he finished urinating.The Messenger of Allaah Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam called him over and said to him, “Any kind of urine or filth is not suitable for these masjids. Instead they are only [appropriate] for the remembrance of Allaah, the Prayer, and the recitation of the Qur’aan,” or this is near to what the Messenger of Allaah said.He Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam then issued an order to a man from the people, who then came with a bucket of water, which he poured over the [effected] area [of the masjid].[Related by Muslim in his Saheeh, 285]
Why didn’t the Prophet Sal Allaaho Alyhe wasalam stopped that man in between when he was urinating?
A: Some scholars say this indicate to you the great mercy of Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam because stopping can cause great difficulty like pain.
Few examples to conclude :
If Somebody had broken their wudu and he prayed without wudu because he forgot. Afterwards, he remembered he need to go and repeat the prayer. If however, some impurity fell on his cloths but he forgot to wash it off and he ended up going and pray. We don’t tell him to repeat again and prayer is acceptable.Proof is in the previous hadeeth when the Prophet Sal Allaaho ‘Alyhe wasalam was praying he had impurity on his shoes. He found out in the middle of the prayer and removed the shoes and carried on. This indicates the prayer was not nullified.
If somebody does not have wudu before prayer has left something commanded with.Therefore, prayer not acceptable.
As for praying with some impurity then you have done something which is type of prohibition but these types of prohibitions if somebody out of ignorance, forgetfulness or compulsion. Then, generally the principle is you are forgiven for that. The fulfillment of that is that, it is not excused (i.e in terms of something allowable) except that the sin it is removed from you. Similarly, an example of somebody in ihraam in Hajj or Umrah if you do some of prohibitions accidentally or forgetfully then you are not accountable. Similarly, in Ramadan who eats forgetfully. Therefore, the prayer continues and is valid.
Notes by Ommo Abdillah Al Baakistaaniyah.
Reference audio lesson 5 : https://soundcloud.com/learnaboutislam