Fiqh of Ramadhan LESSON 1 | Abu Muadh Taqweem Aslam

Subject :Fiqh of Ramadhan.

Dars by Abu Mu’aadh Taqweem.

Lesson 1 

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Introduction :

In this we will discuss

  • Different Aahadeeth that Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم has mentioned regarding Ramadhan.
  • all of the Different aspects of Ramadhan about How Ramadhan starts,
  • What you are suppose to do at Suhoor time in morning, What are you suppose to do at iftaar time in the evening,
  •  What are the different Sunnah acts,
  • What are the types of things which are not befitting and not correct for a person to do while fasting.

All of the various different types of things that are linked to fasting that we are going to discuss        in shaa Allaah. So, after that when Ramadhan begins In shaa Allaah then a person is upon Understanding and a person is upon knowledge with regards to Ramadhan, with regards to fasting what is allowed and what is not allowed. Because, Allaah عزوجل commanded us to worship Him upon knowledge. Not to worship on ignorance. Ramadhan is one of the greatest pillars of Islaam so we must be upon understanding as to how we need to worship Allaah عزوجل in the month of Ramadhan.

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(Use worksheets along with listening lesson )

  • What the word Fasting actually means?

  1. In Arabic ”Fasting” is said, صوم OR صيام.
  2. Linguistically in Arabic language صوم OR صيام. means when you stop yourselves from doing something/you abstain from something/you refrain from doing something.
  3. It could be that maybe somebody refuses to speak. That person you could say linguistically in the Arabic language ”He is fasting from talking”.
  4. Evidence in soorahMaryam verse 26, ”So eat and drink and be glad, and if you see any human being, say: ‘Verily! I have vowed a fast unto the Most Beneficent (Allah) so I shall not speak to any human being this day.’
  5. Islamically صوم OR صيام means ,”to stop yourself/to prevent yourself /refrain from /abstain from eating and drinking and intercourse and all of the other types of acts that will break your fast from the dawn of the actual Fajr up until the Sunset.You make an intention for the sake of Allaah عزوجل that you will not eat and drink and all of the other types of things which break your fast.
  6. And that is important that a person does it with the intention of worshiping Allaah عزوجل. For example : Somebody went on really long journey and something happened and they hadn’t slept for 3 days. Then they fall asleep from before Fajr and they sleep and sleep waking up at Ishaa time.  All day they had been asleep and they didnt see Sun at all. So, could they think to themselves atleast i get the reward for fasting today as i didnt eat all day. In Such cases, are they going to get reward for fasting?No. Because, they didn’t make the intention for the fasting. It just so happened that they didnt end up eating, drinking or any of the other haraam things for the whole of the day. That was co-incidence. They didn’t intended for that. Fasting has to be that you make intention for it.That is for Ramadhan.

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When was Fasting made obligatory ?

  • The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلمbecame Prophet at the age of 40 and the revelation started coming to him at the age of 40 on-wards. So,When did this ruling come? Because as you know all of the religion was not given to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم in one go.Parts were given and more parts were given after that.And then Jibraeel عليه السلام would come and give him more parts.So, When did the part about Ramadhan come?
  • (Please look at worksheet)The Hijrah was made from Makkah to Medinah approximately 13 years later. So, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was in the region of 53. In the 2nd year of Hijrah the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was given the revelation regarding the fact that the Ramadhan is obligatory now.
  • (Look on worksheet 1)How many times did the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم fast Ramadhan in his lifetime? Answer is 9 times.
  • It was made obligatory in 2nd year of Hijrah then after 9 Ramadhans he passed away.

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Rulings of Ramadhan:

  • Is it permissible for somebody to say that they are going to start fasting Ramadhan before it actually starts?.
  • For example: normally people have rough idea that either Friday or Saturday because of the month how islamically are 29 days or 30 days. What if somebody says in that case i am just going to start fast on Wednesday, Ill fast Thursday, Ill fast Friday then i know for definite that i am going to catch the beginning of Ramadhan. Is this permissible or not? Because he might say you people talk about the moon and the moon sighting and some people they say it was one day and some people they start a day after, What if i end-up missing a day of Ramadhan? For somebody to say i am going to add those extra day or two onto it, get extra reward as well adding these couple of days to Ramadhan. Ruling: This is not allowed. 
  • The reason that this is not allowed is that there is Hadeeth of Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم  in Al Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim . Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not observe fast for a day, or two days ahead of Ramadan except a person who is in the habit of observing a particular fast; he may fast on that day.”
  • The first part of the hadeeth tells you very clearly that do not add on the extra days before Ramadhan except for somebody who usually fast those days. What is that mean ? For example :We know that its the Sunnah to fast on Mondays and Thursdays. So, now lets imagine on a particular year Ramadhan ends up starting on a Friday. According to this Hadeeth is it permissible to fast on Thursday?No.The Hadeeth says , ”Don’t start extra days before Ramadhan”.What if somebody from there Habit throughout the year always they fast Mondays and Thursdays. They act on that Sunnah and they fast Mondays and Thursdays all year. So, Now is that type of person allowed to fast that Thursday or not? He is. Because it is his normal habit , whether  Ramadhan was going to start on Friday or not. He would have been fasting the Thursday anyway, to implement the Sunnah. So, him fasting on Thursday is allowed. What isn’t allowed is somebody who doesn’t have that habit but when Ramadhan comes he says now i want to do an extra couple of days. It is also mentioned in Sunnah of somebody who fasts one day and misses one day and then he fasts one day and misses one day.So, he is allowed. Or if there was other exceptional circumstances . For example :an individual had made a vow that he is going to fast the last week of Shabaan(i.e before Ramadhan). So, then he can fulfil the vow and fast those days. But outside of those specific circumstances a person can’t come along and say i am going to add on a couple of days and whenever Ramadhan starts i will already be fasting beforehand. That is incorrect. You wait for the actual time to start. And you start properly.

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Day of Doubt (يوم الشك):

  • Something that the scholars call, ”A Day of Doubt”.What is it?That is the 30th Day of Sha’baan.
  • Shabaan شعبان is the name of the month which comes before Ramadhan.
  • Islamically either the months are 29 days or 30 days.
  • So, this month that we are in now. On the 29th day after Maghrib you could see the new moon which means that this month finishes on 29 days and Ramadhan begins. On the 29th day of this month after Maghrib when the people go out looking for the month .If they can’t see it because of  cloud and fog and mist and rain then the next day is it Ramadhan or not?Now, there is a doubt. You are not sure the next day is it Ramadhan or not because the previous night was 29th day of Shabaan. So, that next day which is 30th day of Shabaan is the Day of Doubt (scholars call it).

What islamically you should do on this day of doubt?

  • There are some scholars who said that you do fast to take precaution the moon could have been out.
  • However, the majority of scholars (opinion which is correct) is that you do not fast on that day. And there are Evidences to prove this point that on that day which is the 30th of this month which could be first of Ramadhan.

Narration which is mention in various books of hadeeth. Hadeeth of ‘Ammaar ibn Yaasir             رضي الله عنه said: “Whoever fasts on the day concerning which there is doubt has disobeyed Abu’l-Qaasim (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).” This was narrated by al-Tirmidhi and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 553.

Narrated Ibn Umar رضي الله عنه: I heard Allah’s Messenger  صلى الله عليه وسلم saying, “Narrated Abdullah bin Umar رضي الله عنه: Allah’s Messenger mentioned Ramadan and said, “Do not fast unless you see the crescent (of Ramadan), and do not give up fasting till you see the crescent (of Shawwal), but if the sky is overcast (if you cannot see it), then act on estimation (i.e. count Sha’ban as 30 days).”  (Agreed upon in Bukhaaree-Book of fasting)

How do you estimate the month?

It could be two things:

  • Either it could be 29 days
  • or it could be 30 days.

So, how this Hadeeth proves that you are suppose to not fast on the day of doubt?Because, there are other narrations coming as yet.

  • Hadeeth of Sahih Bukhaaree:” If its covered and fog and mist and you can’t see, then complete 30 days of Shabaan”.
  • Hadeeth of Abo Huraira رضي الله عنه:”Complete the days of Shabaan as 30”.

So, that is whats mentioned regarding if the moon cannot be sighted. Is it permissible to use calculations?

A: It is not permissible to use calculations.

Some people they say well the previous month was 29 Days and the month before was 29Days and the normal pattern is that the third month is 30Days, which is often the case that there are certain lunar patterns. However, those calculated pattern and calculations we cannot judge our worship to Allaah عزوجل based upon them. Even, if they come and say to you that the weather people they have satellite and everything and made the calculation and estimation that the moon is going to out at this time. Our worship of fasting to Allaah عزوجل is not based upon them. Because, Islamically Allaah عزوجل Has made fasting obligatory upon us on seeing the Moon not based upon estimating.

Evidence : Hadeeth of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar رضي الله عنه  in Abu Dawood.He said, ”The people sighted the moon, so I informed the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that I had sighted it. He fasted and commanded the people to fast. ”

  • This Hadeeth shows you that Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم gave the command for the Ramadhan based upon ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar رضي الله عنه witnessed the Moon and not based upon people calculating.
  • Know, at the time of the Prophet 1400 years ago, they had scientists in those times who could estimate and calculate the lunar cycle.

Shaykh Fawzan حفظه الله mentions that they could workout calculations even then. But, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم did not used to rely on those experts. Rather, he used to wait for people to see the Moon.

  • Look at how much trouble these calculations bring to the people. Now you have sighting of the moon is simple. The Muslim wherever he is can sight the moon and the announcement goes out and the people start fasting. But, otherwise when the people want to start using calculations then it all goes wrong, even the calculations are wrong.

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How many people have to sight the moon for Ramadhan to begin?

  • In the Hadeeth of ‘Abdullah ibne ‘Umar رضي الله عنه (mentioned above) there  was one person who was ‘Abdullah ibne ‘Umar رضي الله عنه.
  • Narrated by ‘Abdullah ibn Abbas رضي الله عنه in Abu Dawood. ”A bedouin came to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and said: I have sighted the moon. Al-Hasan added in his version: that is, of Ramadan. He asked: Do you testify that there is no Diety worthy of worship except Allah? He replied: Yes. He again asked: Do you testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah? He replied: Yes. and he testified that he had sighted the moon. He said: Bilal, announce to the people that they must fast tomorrow.”
  • Therefore, One trustworthy individual who can be trusted with the conditions that are applied for the one who is of the age, understanding and trustworthy Muslim. One witnessing is enough for the Ramadhan to begin. And it do not makes difference whether it is a male or female.

How do we know that it has to be a Muslim who makes the sighting ?

  • In the Hadeeth (mentioned above) when this person came to Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم did not knew who he was. He asked him whether he was Muslim or not before accepting his word. And then he made that ruling and announcement that Ramadhan has begin.

Shaykh Fawzan حفظه الله explains, ”As for those ignorant ones and those pretending to have knowledge, they come along and start telling people that you should use calculations. They have brought about something  new into the religion to Allaah عزوجل. Using calculations was never the way to workout when the Ramadhan begins. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم gave us easy way. Look for the moon if you see it start Ramaadhan and if you donot see it then next Day is still Shabaan 30 days then after that start Ramadhan.”

  • What if on the 29th day you go out, look for the moon and no body sees it. ?The next day going to still be Shabaan.
  • What if you go out and look for moon next 30th Day? Because, Islamically it is impossible for a month to be more then 30 Days so you start Fasting.

Do we have to follow the moon sighting of the country that is very far away?

A: For example : Often the Country Saudi Arabia often get moon sighting much easier then us.Here, in this part of the world the cloud cover the mist so very difficult to get sighthing. So, if they make a sighting then do we have to follow thier sighting?

Here there are two statements of the Scholars :

  • One statement of the Scholars from the time of the Salaf which is correct is wherever in the world a sighting occurs then all the Muslims should unite on that sighting and start Ramadhan.
  • Second opinion is if you do not do that , then alternative possible is that you can start Ramadhan within your geographical region of countries because the lunar sighting will be different in different part of the worlds. So, some scholars say in your part of the world if there is a genuine sighting on a particular day or the other then it is possible for you to stay with your part of the world in that lunar geographical region so you look towards the nearest country in your lunar geographical region.And you could fast relying with that.

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Regarding your Intention:

  • Many of the scholars have mentioned which is correct that your mind is in your heart. if you see how Allaah عزوجل talks about the Qur’aan , how your heart it changes the emotions and the feelings.
  • When do you make your intention?Here, what the scholars would generally say what appear to be the case with the existence of differences mentioned, is that the person should make intention every night for obligatory Fast?Then, many of the scholars do mention that you make intention everyday for the fast of the next day. Some of the narrations they use for that:

It was narrated by Ibn ‘Umar from Hafsah رضي الله عنها that the Prophetصلى الله عليه وسلم said:

”Whoever does not have the intention of fasting before Fajr, there is no fast for him.”

Narrated by Imam Ahmad, the authors of al-Sunan, Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibbaan; they classed it as saheeh and marfoo’.

  • There is an exceptions to that. For example : A person he gets up and prays Fajr and then he goes to sleep and gets up on Dhuhr time and he is tried and sleeps again and then wakes up at ‘Asr time and gets ready , pray ‘Asr.All day he didn’t eat anything what if he just makes the intention at ‘Asr time that  he is going to consider this fast and carry on for couple of hours till maghrib then he will eat and get reward for fast? In Ramadhan that is not permissible.That does not mean if you miss suhoor it nullify your fast.
  • But, there is a circumstance that this person we have been talking about , would be allowed.That circumstance is if the fasting is optional (Nafl fast).And there is a Narration from ‘Aishah رضي الله عنها in Muslim who narrated that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم came to visit her one day and asked, “Did you have anything to eat?” She said, “No.”                                       The Prophet  صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid, “Then I am fasting.”
  • Also in the optional fast somebody wakesup at Fajr they have Suhoor and then Fast.But, these days the days are long. It gets to Dhuhr time its hot and sunny. It goes to ‘Asr time he is struggling even more. Then, when he sees the cakes and thinks to himself i can’t take it . I want to have the slice of that cake. It is permissible in the optional fast for him to break the fast and take the slice of cake. And you donot have to make up a day.                           Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلمdid that.
  • ‘Evidence : Aisha, mother of the believers -رضي الله عنها- said: One day, the Messenger of Allah -صلى الله عليه وسلم told me:

    “O ‘Aisha, do you have something?” I replied, “O Messenger of Allah, I don’t have anything.” Then he -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said, “Then I am fasting.” The Messenger of Allah be upon him- then went out and we got gifts or there was a visitor. ‘Aisha -may Allah be pleased with her- said, “When the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-, we got some gifts”, or “someone visited us, and I’ve prepared something for you.” He asked, “What is that?” I replied, “The hais.” He -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said, “Bring it here!” Then I brought the food to him and the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- ate it, and said, “I was fasting.” (Narrated by Muslim).

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Trasncript by Omm ‘Abdillah Al-Baakistaaniyyah.

Lesson 1 of Understanding Ramadhan Series by Abu Mu’aadh.

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