Subject :Fiqh of Ramadhan.
Dars by Abu Mu’aadh Taqweem.
Suhoor and the Iftaar
- (Suhoor)The Morning meal that a person takes when fasting and (Iftaar)the evening meal when you open your fast.
- Narrations : 1) Hadeeth of Sahl ibn Sa`d رضي الله عنه reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “The people will not cease to be upon good as long as they hasten in breaking the fast.” ( Agreed upon in Bukhari and Muslim).
In this narration is encourage for the Muslims to open their Fasts on time (i.e not to delay it). Because, it is the way of the some of the people they purposely open the fast after the actual time of sunset. Because, they will say to you we were being cautious. Giving it another 10 minutes just to be absolutely sure that you open the fast after the sunset. Whats the Problem?We say the Problem is firstly that you are going against the Hadeeth of Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم who got the revelation from Allaah عز وجل.
Shaykh Fawzaan حفظه الله says, ”When the person understands and he realizes that it is the time of Sunset(i.e Maghrib) then it is upon him to open the fast whichever means that maybe. Perhaps it could be that you hear the Adhaan and the Adhaan if it is being done on time of Maghrib then when you hear it you need to open your fast. Or if there are other ways which are understood that the time of the fasting has opened for example in certain places of the world you can actually see the Sunset.That is where the goodness is. Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, that The Goodness will remain with you as long as you are opening the fast on time”
- 2) Another Hadeeth narrated by Abo Hurairah رضي الله عنه which is in Tirmidhe that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said that Allaah عز وجل said, ”The Most beloved of my servants to me are those who take the Iftaar on time”.
In the second Hadeeth it backs up what is in the first hadeeth. Shaykh Fawzaan حفظه الله says, ”Taking the Ifaar on time then that is what the Sunnah indicates and acting upon the Sunnah is better then your mind telling, you need to be precautious. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلمcould have told us that if it was the case. In-fact, the opposite is mentioned in the Sunnah in Al-Bukhaaree , Al -Muslim. The Second problem with that is that you are then adding on to the prescribed worship. The prescribed worship is to fast from the actual Fajr.”
In the morning there are two Fajrs (Two Dawn).
- One is true fajr (dawn ) and
- Second False Fajr(Dawn).
The False Dawn in the morning is that overnight when its pitch black then in the morning when the first light appears then firstly it appears upwards in a vertical way like a big column upwards that light when you see it is not Fajr time. Because, after a while that light actually disappears and goes pitch black again. After a while, another light comes out again this time it comes out horizontally across the horizon thats the actual time of Fajr (i.e True Fajr). Thats when you stop eating and drinking now. So, it carry’s on until the Sunsets. When the Sunsets that is the time for opening the fast. Whats being prescribed is from the Actual Fajr up until the Sunset.
Shaykh Fawzaan حفظه الله says, ”In the early times, people of deviation who went astray they were misguided away from the Quraan and Sunnah. They started delaying the opening of the fasts. This could actually be considered one of the miracle of Prophet hood.”
Because, at the time of Prophetصلى الله عليه وسلم people weren’t delaying opening the fast. That started happening after the death of Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. So, Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم already mentioned this Hadeeth as if miracle of Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم that he knew that in the future people will start delaying opening the fasts.
- 3) Narration of Salmaan Ibno ‘Aamir Adabi رضي الله عنه in Abu Dawud The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ”When one of you is fasting, he should break his fast with dates; but if he cannot get any, then (he should break his fast) with water, for water is purifying. ”
These all narrations talk about the Topic of Ifaar (The food that you have when you open the fast).The Hadeeth above tells us the best thing you can open your fast with is dates.And after the dates also water is mentioned.
Shaykh says, ”There is a wisdom in the revelation telling us to open our fasts with date and water because there is properties within the dates and water that are good and beneficial for the stomach after you being fasting for so long. The sweetness of the dates and it provides goodness for the stomach. The water is good on an empty stomach when you haven’t eaten on anything all day”. It’s not suitable to eat any burgers and chips and pizzas.
The Shaykh says, ”As for what the people do nowadays they bring large meals.This was not the way of Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم ”
When you come to open the fast you could do with some dates and water. After that then you go and pray maghrib prayer. You donot want to delay the maghrib prayer beyond its time. Then after that if you are hungry and you want to eat more you can sit down and you can eat more.
The morning Meal(Suhoor):
- That is the food which is eaten at the time of Sahar. That time of Sahar is just prior to the Fajr.
- The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم encouraged the people to have this meal. There is a Hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik رضي الله عنه that the Messenger of Allaah said صلى الله عليه وسلم, “Take Sahur as there is a blessing (Barakah) in it.”[Reported by Al-Bukhari]
There are various reasons for that : 1) One of them is when that person has some food in the morning, then that will be something which gives some energy for a day to be able to do worships or other activities of that day. So, there is Barakah in it from that side.
2)Another one of the reasons is because the other religions (Judaism, Christianity etc) there is fasting in their religions. However, one of the distinguishing features between the way they used to fast and the way that the Muslims fast is that they never used to have the Suhoor. So Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “The distinguishing feature between our fast and the fast of the People of the Book (Christians and Jews) is in the eating at the time just before dawn (i.e suhoor). (Muslim }
Some people might say i cant eat anything at that time, its impossible. Physically my body, i just don’t feel like eating anything at that time. The Scholars they say and the Shaykh fawzan حفظه الله himself ,” If your like that no problem. Still get up and have a sip of water or anything.Just so that you had some food before Fajr and there is barakah in that food even if it is small amount”.
- Continuation is basically when a person for example today it was a Friday morning so if somebody woke up this morning before Fajr had the suhoor meal, now maghrib is coming up in half an hour . The person doesn’t open his fast.Carrys on Carrys on prays ‘Eshaa, still doesn’t eat anything. Carys on goes to sleep, wakes up at fajr still doesn’t eat anything. The whole next day he carry’s on. Tomorrow ( Saturday ) at Maghrib he opens his fast so he is done a two day fast.Maybe sometimes even a 3 days of fast.
- There is Hadeeth of Abo Hurairah رضي الله عنه that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم forbade Al-Wisal (continous fasting through the night) in fasting. So, one of the Muslims said to him, “But you practice Al-Wisal. O Allah’s Messenger!” The Prophet replied, “Who amongst you is similar to me? I am given food and drink during my sleep by my Lord.” So, when the people refused to stop Al-Wisal (fasting continuously), the Prophet fasted day and night continuously along with them for a day and then another day and then they saw the crescent moon (of the month of Shawwal). The Prophet said to them (angrily), “If It (the crescent) had not appeared, I would have made you fast for a longer period.” That was as a punishment for them when they refused to stop (practising Al-Wisal).
- The Scholars they differed over what it means that Allaah عز وجلprovides me with food and drink at night.
- Some of the scholars they say that it could be the case that from the miracles of the Prophet was given the food and drink from paradise. Which meant that he could carry on then that food and drink of paradise. He would carry on for 2 ,3 ,4 days and he would be okay.
- Other Scholars they say what the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم meant by this that when he eats something that food which he eats that is enough for him for one days, 2 days, 3 days. Because Prophetصلى الله عليه وسلم is so focused on worship and obedience to Allaah عز وجلpraying. Praying like its mentioned he used to pray so much at night that his feet would become swollen.Because of the pleasure that Prophetصلى الله عليه وسلم got from worshiping to Allaah عز وجل. Food and drink was something completely secondary.He didn’t feel the hunger.
- But the companions or some of the people there at time they wanted really to do this worship with Prophetصلى الله عليه وسلم . So, then the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم did it with them.So, they started thier fast one day and they carried on to maghrib they didnt opened it .Then the next day they carried on, came to Maghrib they didnt opened it. When it came to the third day the new moon came out. Meaning this happened right at the end of Ramadaan. Somewhere around 27th or 28th of Ramadaan.So, they had to stop then obviously there was Eid the following day.Then the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said to them, ” Have the moon not come out i would have carried on even more days”. This the Scholars says, is to show the people that Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was showing the Muslims that you can’t do what i can do. So, this physical implementation of continuation the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم did it with them to show them how difficult it is and to show them that they can’t do it. This isn’t something that they can practice like Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم could do. That was something specific to Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم .
- Based upon that Hadeeth,some of the scholars have said, that it is not permissible to do continuation.But, then is there a something which might come to your mind if we say that the ruling is that you are not allowed to do this continuation then what might come to your mind from this hadeeth that they actually did it. And the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم allowed them to do it. So, what is the conclusion? There is a difference of opinion regarding this.
- The Majority of the scholars says, ”that is not permissible”.Because, in the beginning of the Hadeeth the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said don’t do this continuation. But when they started saying they really wanted to do it.Then the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم did it with them to show them that you cant do it. So, it wasn’t to show Ummah that it is permissible rather it was to show you cant do it.Some narrations tell you can’t do continuation which is the Hadeeth that don’t delay the iftaar.
- The second opinion some of the scholars that say,” it is permissible.’‘Because, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم did it with them when they insisted. If it was completely Haraam then the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم would have said them No this is Haraam.
- The Third opinion is that it is Haraam for somebody who is unable to do it. He hasn’t got the ability but it is permissible for somebody who has strength and ability.
- The Fourth opinion which is the statement of Imaam Ahmed that it is permissible to do it but only up until how long.If you start fasting in the morning of Fajr time you carry on all the way until Maghrib and you don’t open your fast. You carry on up until when?Up until the next day Fajr time which it makes therefore a fast 24 hours.Then you eat until next Suhoor .Your eating then becomes your Iftaar and your Suhoor all in one.Because, there is another narration in Saheeh Al Bukhaaree where the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, ”Don’t do the continuation but if anyone wants to do continue then up until the next suhoor”.This opinion of Imaam Ahmed would seem to be reasonable in strength because the Hadeeth is in Saheeh Bukharee. But, the Majority of Scholars says it is not permissible.
Some of the things that break your Fast:
General Categories that breaks your Fast :
- Physical things : Like food, water.
- Non Physical that can have an impact on your fast : Backbiting, Lying, Cheating, Stealing, Deceiving, Swearing, Abuse, oppression. Haraam actions that you do.
- We have a Hadeeth of Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم narrated by Al Imaam Al Bukharee that Whoever does not leave all types of evil speech and practicing those things then Allaah عز وجل has no need for you to stop eating and drinking.
- The Physical ones when somebody eats drinks on purpose, that breaks your fast. But, they are still carrying on their business which has all types of Haraam in it. They carry on lying about people, swearing, backbiting and talking evil about others. They carry on all haraam activity. Does there fast count for that day and break thier fast? Those types of non physical haraam things they do impact on your fast but they don’t break it. They will take away reward of your day.They will carry on until the reward goes down and down until there is no reward left for you for that day of fasting.Somebody wants to fight with you say to them i am fasting. And that is so easy that it occurs upon the tongue so easy that a person sits there and backbites about someone. So, easy that a person sends small text speaking ill of someone.So a person must be cautions about his tongue.And thats why they used to say that the tongue you have been given two safeguards , the teeth that are in-front of your tongue and the lips are in-front of that. For your tongue to get out and speak it needs to pass the teeth and then it needs to get and pass the lips before it finally comes out and speaks.They say, use your teeths or use your lips as the two jails in-front of your tongue not letting out and speak evil and lies and those other things which are haraam.
- Cupping is removing the surface (impure)blood from the body.And it is a known cure in the Sunnah of Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. Sometimes you can do it on your head, you can do it on your back and your arms and various parts.
- Is it permissible to get the cupping done while you are fasting?
- The First Narration apparently says which is Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbâs رضى الله عنهما: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم had himself cupped when he was wearing the Ihrâm (during Hajj or ‘Umrah) and had himself cupped when he was fasting. [Reported by al-Bukhari].He also had the cupping done whilst he was fasting.
- The Second Narration says which is Narrated by Shaddâd bin Aus رضى الله عنه: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم came across a man in Al‑Baqi‘ who was being cupped in Ramadân. He said, “The one who cups and the one who is cupped have broken their fast.” [Reported by Al‑Khamsa except At‑Tirmidhi. Ahmad, Ibn Khuzaima and Ibn Hibbân graded it Sahih]. So the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid the one who is doing the cupping his fast is broken and the one having done on him his fast is broken.
- The Third Hadeeth of Anas bin Maalik رضى الله عنه: The first time when cupping – for one who is fasting – was disapproved was when: Ja‘far bin Abû-Tâlib had himself cupped while he was fasting; the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم came across him and said, “Both of these have broken their fast.” Afterwards, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم allowed cupping for one who is fasting. Anas used to have himself cupped when he was fasting. [Ad‑Dâraqutni reported it and declared it to be strong].Meaning the ruling changed. The Anas رضي الله عنه the one who Narrates the Hadeeth used to himself get the cupping whilst he was fasting because he heard this hadeeth.This third Hadeeth indicates a type of joining together of first two Hadeeth.It indicates initially it was not allowed but afterwards the ruling changed .What do we do then? This will be discussed in next lesson.
What is the reward for Fasting ?
The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Allah said: ‘Every deed of the son of Adam is for him except fasting; it is for Me and I shall reward for it…’”
[Sahih al-Bukhari and Muslim]
The Salaf who were great scholars of the past used to, start making du’aa 5 or 6 months prior to Ramadaan coming and for them still to be alive at the time of Ramadaan and then after Ramadhaan for the next 5 months or 6 they would be making dua’a , ”O Allaah عز وجل accept Ramadaan we have just done”.So, whole year they would be making du’aa for Ramadaan.
Transcription by Omm Zakariyaa
Reference Lesson 2: http://www.learnaboutislam.co.uk/2014/06/06/the-understanding-ramadan-series-abu-muadh-taqweem-aslam/