Subject :Fiqh of Ramadhan.
Dars by Abu Mu’aadh Taqweem.
The Elderly and the ill.
This Hadeeth is now talking about those who are elderly in age such that they are unable to fast.The Hadeeth explains that for that type of person who is elderly in age and they are unable to fasts then they don’t have to fasts because they have the permission to not fast in that case.
What is the Ruling though?
The Ruling though then is that they have to feed a poor person for everyday that they miss. And they don’t have to make up the Days. Why? Because, they are old and the very reason they are missing is because they are old and they are weak. If you say they have to make it up later. It does not makes sense. After Ramadhaan they are going to be a month older and weaker.The measurement that they give (i.e to poor person ) is approximately a kilogram and half of food.Whatever that food maybe.
There is somebody else who also has that same ruling that they don’t have to makeup the days afterwards.They just feed a poor person for everyday they miss.Who else has that same ruling? ill people. But, What type of ill person?Basically, there are two types of illness.
- 1)Where it(i.e illness) is temporary. You expect to get better afterwards.This Type of person somebody who has a temporary illness (i.e an illness where it is expected he will recover) waits till he recovers and then you make up the days that you missed.
- 2)Something which is chronic. Something which you donot expect to get better. There is no cure. There is no medicine of such that will make you better and take constant on going illness that you are expected to have till you die. Then, that type of person if he is unable to fasts because of this ongoing illness that he is not expected to recover from then he is allowed to miss the fasts. And afterwards he is not expected to get better so he is not in the situation to make up the fasts. So, Ruling for that person is, ”He also feeds a poor person for everyday that he misses”.
Different types of reasons that allow a person to miss fasting? What are they?
- illness which is such that it stops you from fasting. When we say illness it doesn’t mean any illness. When you have a small cold.You are sneezing a little bit. That is not something which is going to prevent you from fasting. It is an illness that actually prevents you from fasting.
- Somebody old in age where they are weak and they cannot burden that fasting any longer there body can’t take it. They will feed a poor person for every fast they miss. Note : [The obligation of fasting is on the Baaligh( the one who is of the age of puberty). The young child -the obligation isn’t there anyway.]
- Women :
- at the particular time of the month. When it is of that time in the cycle then when they are upon those days then it is permissible. In-fact, it is actually impermissible for the woman to fast. So, they must take those days off.
- The Post-natal bleeding (after giving birth).It is not permissible for her to fast. They must make it afterwards.
What if those type of women? One in the month and another in post-natal bleeding fasts?
A: It doesn’t count because the ruling is that it is not permissible to fast at that time.
From these 4 categories so far you can see that the people who are allowed to miss fasting they have one of two rulings :
- There are some people who are allowed to miss fasting.And on the ruling on them is they have to make it up afterwards.Like, Traveler, ill person having temporary illness, women in monthly cycle or post-natal bleeding.
- There are other people who are allowed to miss fasting and the ruling upon them is not to make it up but to feed a poor person.Like Elderly person and a person with a chronic illness.
The Woman who is Pregnant during Ramadhaan
A person asked Shaykh bin baaz Rahimahuallah: ”Indeed i was not able to fast the month of Ramadhaan due to pregnancy and i had made the intention that i would make up these days after giving birth later on. However, after the birth was breastfeeding. So, then i was not able to fast either due to breastfeeding. And because, my body during those times (pregnancy and breastfeeding) it wasn’t able to burden the fasting. Then, Do i have to give some charity or feed the person or do i have to make up the days that i miss.?
Shaykh bin baaz says, ”Upon you is to fast when you are able. (i.e the pregnancy ends. The breastfeeding ends, the children they grow up). As Allaah Azza wa jal says in Soorah baqarah286. ”Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope.” The Pregnant one and the breastfeeding one. There ruling is the same as the ruling of a traveler.And she can make it later. Even, if that later is after next Ramadhaan.If you are not able, due to the breastfeeding then you are excused. Just like somebody who is ill.When Allaah makes it easy for you to be able to fast even if it is separate days. Maybe you have missed a full month. It’s not a condition that you have to make up in a full month consecutively . You could makeup a few days, take a few days off if your not able.(Fatwa of Shaykh bin baaz)
Fatwa of Shaykh ibn uthymeen: He was asked if a pregnant women fears upon herself and she fears upon her unborn child. And therefore does not fast. Whats the ruling?
A: We say, the Pregnant women falls into one of two situations. One type of situation is that a pregnant women is actually fit and healthy and able to fast during pregnancy and it does not impact on her and it doesn’t impact on her child. In that instance, that type of women then must absolutely fast.The situation though, that the Pregnant women is actually unable to fast, either due to her heaviness of her pregnancy or due to her weakness in the body or for other then that for the reasons.So, in that situation when the pregnant women is unable to burden the fasting for the impact on herself or her unborn child, then it is permissible for her not to fast. Especially, if there is going to be a harm upon her unborn child then in such circumstances it is obligatory for her not to fast.Ruling upon her is same as anybody else that she has to makeup those days afterwards where when she is in the situation that she is able to fast. Once she has given the birth, it is obligatory upon her to make up those days when she has become pure (after the post-natal bleeding period). Sometimes though, maybe a women given birth after the post-natal bleeding period now but still another reason comes about which is obviously breastfeeding. Breastfeeding women may need to eat and drink in that instances particularly in the summer days when the days are very long then in that case due to the impact it will have on her ability to breastfeed then it will be permissible for her to miss those days and makeup the fasting afterwards. ”
There is another fatwa of Shaykh bin Baaz , ”As for the pregnant and the breastfeeding one then it is established from the Prophet regarding how it was given permission for them to not to fast and the same ruling was put upon them as the one who is a traveller. (meaning that they must makeup those days afterwards).”
There is another fatwa of the permanent committee of senior scholars, ” As for the pregnant women then it is obligatory upon her to fast whilst she is pregnant except if she feels harm upon herself and her unborn child then in that case then it is permissible to not have to fast and then she makes up those days after she gives birth and after she becomes pure from the post-natal bleeding. This is what many of the scholars say with regards to one who is upon the pregnancy and breastfeeding that they are allowed to miss the days if it is going to impact upon them in terms of their pregnancy or their breastfeeding then they are allowed to miss the days. But many of the scholars we have seen there the Shaykh ibn Uthymeen, Shaykh bin baaz and permanent committee of the senior scholars they all say that it is upon her to makeup the days afterwards , even if that takes a long time. However, some of the scholars do have an alternate opinion and that is that some of the scholars they say , ”it is actually not upon the pregnant women or the breastfeeding women who misses any days . It is not upon her to makeup. They simply feed a poor person for everyday they miss. Why some scholars mention that ? There are some narrations which indicates that. Another one of the explanations the scholars which hold this particular opinion that they can simply feed a poor person they say if you look at the scenario there where a women is pregnant and breastfeed , and pregnant and breastfeeds, and pregnant and breastfeeds that could be of 6 six years of missed Ramadhaan. That could be extreme burden upon women now.The Shaari’ah does not come with such type of difficulty upon a person.They simply have to feed a poor person for the day they miss and it is opinion of some scholars. And there are other opinions too. Some of the scholars say that the women have to feed a poor person and makeup a days . But, the two strongest opinions are that the women either make the missed days or women can simply feed a poor person for the days that she misses.
The other thing we have to mention in regards to making up. If a person has the days to make up then they must make sure that they make up those days before next ramadhan. If you don’t and then the next Ramadhaan it comes then that person is a sinner. He must repent to Allaah and he must make them up after ramadhaan and he must feed a poor person for everyday. That is what is mentioned by Shaykh bin baz.
What if the person has days to makeup but they die before making up those days?
This Hadeeth it would seem to indicate that a person who has missed some-days but then he die and he didn’t make them up. This hadeeth would seem to indicate that your relatives that they have to then makeup those days on your behalf . However, a difference of opinion regarding this issue.
- First opinion :Whatever makeup days maybe. Maybe there are days from Ramadhaan maybe from a vow and then they die without fulfilling a vow. The next kin relative, the guardian will makeup those days on behalf of that person. There is a hadeeth in Bukhari :: Book 3 :: Volume 31 :: Hadith 174Narrated Ibn Abbas:A man came to the Prophet and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! My mother died and she ought to have fasted one month (for her missed Ramadan). Shall I fast on her behalf?” The Prophet replied in the affirmative and said, “Allah’s debts have more right to be paid.” In another narration a woman is reported to have said, “My sister died…”
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas: A woman said to the Prophet “My mother died and she had vowed to fast but she didn’t fast.” In another narration Ibn ‘Abbas is reported to have said, “A woman said to the Prophet, “My mother died while she ought to have fasted for fifteen days.”
- The Second opinion is that if the person had days left to makeup which are from the obligatory fasts in the Shari’ah. If the person dies and has some days left of the obligatory fasts upon them from the very basis of Shari’ah. Then donot make for that person because of the obligation of that nature, you can’t substitute other people. For example : the prayer is something basis absolute obligation.Nobody can pray on behalf of somebody else. Same is for fasting.But, they do say if it was a type of fasting that is not an obligation in the Shariah in the basis. Like a vow. If a person had vowed fast a particular day then that fast now becomes obligatory upon them not because Shariah said so.Now, they made that particular day obligatory upon themselves. That type the scholars say, is allowed. The reason because the hadeeth that we mentioned before when women came to prophet and she said my mother has some fasts to makeup. So, can i do them on her behalf. There is another narration of the same story where it says that the women came and said to prophet that my mother has days to makeup from a vow she made. So, some of the scholars they say you can do that but only if it is due to a vow that a person has made.
Hadeeth of Abu Ayyub (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:
“Whoever fasts Ramadhan and follows it with six days of Shawwal, it will be as if he fasted for a lifetime.”
The rewards for that person will be like he have fasted the whole of the year.Because, as the scholars they say every good action that you do then atleast its mentioned every good action you do is 10 rewards. The fasting we know is unlimited reward. The reward is from Allaah. If it was ten rewards and you fast 30 days in Ramadhaan that becomes 100 rewards. And if you fast another 6 days shawal that becomes 360.
How many days in the year ? Approximately 360 .So, the scholars says this indicates a fasting reward for that person is a full year of fasting. But, the condition is you have to makeup missed days from ramadhan first.
Narrated Abu Huraira:
I heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) saying regarding Ramadan, “Whoever prayed at night in it (the month of Ramadan) out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.”
|Reference||: Sahih al-Bukhari 2008|
|In-book reference||: Book 31, Hadith 1|
The one who pray whole of ramadhan and taraweeh then his previous past minor sins are all forgiven.
Its a month of great blessing and the month of worship and obedience. It is mentioned that the salaf in this month when the month came they (salaf ) would get thier mushaf and they would preoccupy and busy with themselves with the recitation of Qur’aan whole month. Some of the salaf would finish 10 , 20, 30, 50 times the Qur’aan in one month in Ramadhaan. In learning and understanding and also practicing it. Not just reciting it.
Is it permissible to use coconut cream or oil?
Because, coconut cream or oil has a certain nutrient substance in it. When you put it on the skin then the nutrients they penetrate in the skin.So, could that be classed as something that breaks your fast. Then the answer is that it is not something classed as that breaks your fast because even though yes it is understood that coconut oil has nutrients within it that may well penetrate the skin . It is not something that provides nutrient to your body. You could apply coconut oil all day but it wont provide nutrient for stomach.
Transcript by Omm Zakariyaa
reference lesson 4 http://www.learnaboutislam.co.uk/2014/06/06/the-understanding-ramadan-series-abu-muadh-taqweem-aslam/