فضل اللغة العربية (Virtue of Arabic language)
Allaah ‘Azza wa jal said in Soorah Yusuf v:2,
إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ ﴿٢﴾
Verily, We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur’an in order that you may understand.
- This Book (i.e Qur’aan ) is in Arabic.
- Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم spoke in Arabic and his Sahabah.
- In Arabic came to us Hadeeth, Chain of narration, Tafaaseer of Qur’aan .
- Allaah’s Book include meanings. Without knowledge of Arabic language, one will not have good knowledge of the meanings of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah , unless he has someone to translate for him.
- A person cannot reach to the high level of Arabic if he is deficient in his understanding of it.
- Learning Arabic is beneficial because you don’t need translators and you should take from translators who are trustworthy as Shaykh ul Islaam ibne Taimiyyah رحمه الله mentioned.
- Olemah said ” Knowing the language and ‘Iraab are the Asal of knowing the hadeeth because the Sharee’ah came in the tongue of Arab”
وقالالإمام المبارك مجد الدين ابن الأثير: ” معرفة اللغة والإعراب هما أصل لمعرفة الحديثوغيره، لورود الشريعة المطهرة بلسان العرب “
- The best intention to learn Arabic language is to understand the Qur’aan and Sunnah and the speech of scholars directly to study your deen .
Introduction to Nahw (Grammer)
In Arabic,words have 2 meanings which are as follows:
- According to Arabs in Arabic language which is called as المعنى اللغوي .(Al M’anal Lughawyy). In English we say linguistic meaning.
- According to people of specific science of knowledge, agreeing on using a specific word for a specific meaning. This is called as المعنى الإصطلاحي (Al M’anal Istilaahyy).In English we say Technical meaning.
Arabic speech is made up of words (كلمة) Kalimah.
- Definition of Kalimah (كلمة) Linguistically (in Lughah ) is that it can mean to describe a sentence.
Evidence in Soorah Al Mu’menoon verse 100,
حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَ أَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ رَبِّ ارْجِعُونِ ﴿٩٩﴾ لَعَلِّي أَعْمَلُ صَالِحًا فِيمَا تَرَكْتُ ۚ كَلَّا ۚ إِنَّهَا كَلِمَةٌ هُوَ قَائِلُهَا ۖ وَمِن وَرَائِهِم بَرْزَخٌ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ ﴿١٠٠
”Until, when death comes to one of them (those who join partners with Allah), he says: “My Lord! Send me back.“So that I may do good in that which I have left behind!” No! It is but a word that he speaks, and behind them is Barzakh (a barrier) until the Day when they will be resurrected.”
Another example is Kalimah of Shahaadah.
Definition of Kalimah (كلمة) Technically in (إصطلاح) meaning in the sight of the scholars of Nahw is قول مفرد .
- قول هو لفظ. Qawul is the pronouncing, that points to a meaning. Like, when you pronounce رجل (A man). This is a pronunciation by voice which includes letters. If this Qawul don’t gives meaning then it is NOT a Qawul.
- Meaning of Mufrad (مفرد)(single): is that the part of the قول (saying) doesn’t indicate part of a meaning. Like Zaid زيد is made up of 3 letters. Each 3 letters itself alone(or being single) don’t have a meaning. Like عبد الله carry’s a meaning Slave of Allaah. When it is parted then it still carry a meaning of ”Slave” and ”Allaah”.
Types of Kalimah are 3 which are as follows :
- اسم Ism (Noun) : it have meaning but it don’t indicate any time or place. Like Zaid, Car and House etc.
- فعل f’il (Verb) : It have meaning and also it indicates 3 times which are Past, present and future (ماض ,حال, مستقبل)
- حرفHarf(Particle) : it don’t have meaning in itself unless noun or verb comes with it.
Extra benefit : Huroof حروف are of 2 types :
- Huroof that have meaning. Like Huroof ur Jarr في ,على ,عن
- Huroof that don’t have meaning like Arabic letters.
What is the Evidence for the 3 types of Kalimah ?
A: ‘Olamah they looked into the speech of Arabs by reading poems and other things. They didn’t found any other word other than these 3 words. This is called استقراء which means seeing all of what came in order to give a ruling.
Each of these words have their specific sign which are as follows :
- اسم Nouns : Adding in beginning (AL) ال makes the noun definite, adding tanween in end of noun makes it indefinite, adding حرف جر Harfu Jar before the noun like في هذا (This changes the noun from مرفوع Marf’oo to Majroor مجرور.
Nouns can be مرفوع Marfo’ if its ending in dhamma, can be مجرور Majruur if its ending in Kasrah, can be منصوب Mansub if its ending in Fathah.
- فعل verbs : There are 3 types of verbs which are : 1) ماض (Maad) Past verb, 2)مضارع (Mudaar’i) Present verb, 3)الأمر (Al-Amr) the command or order.
- ماض (Maadin) sign is تأء التأنيث الساكنة Taa ut ta’nees As-Saakinah (The Silent feminine taa). Like قامت عائشة (Qaamat ‘Aaishah- ‘Aishah stood up.
- مضارع (Mudaar’i) sign is coming of لم (Lam) (Negation) before Present verb. Like لم يلعب (He is not playing)
- الأمر (Al Amr) sign is that it asks you to do something and for female always yaa is added in the end. Like إسمعي ,أخرجي
- حرف particle: It donot have any signs of nouns or verbs.
- Arabic speech can be beneficial and cannot be beneficial. It can be beneficial it more information is not needed. For example : ‘Aali is in the house. It can be NOT beneficial if more information is needed. For example : in the house. Here, you are waiting for more information that , ”in the house what?”.
- Arabic speech consists of minimum 2 nouns like زيد قائم or a noun and verb like قام زيد .
- قول هو لفظ. لفظ يدل على معنى. Qawul (saying ) is Pronounciation. Pronunciation that gives a meaning.
Notes written by Omm Zakariyaa Al-Baakistaaniyyah As-Salafiyyah.